Professionals inspiration

Choosing the stone according to its purpose

  • Indoor floors

    Indoor floors

    People have been using natural stone for indoor floors since ancient times because of its endurance and reliability against mechanical actions.
    Nowadays people use it more and more often for indoor furnishing, preferring it due to its natural appearance.It can be successfully applied in dining rooms, kitchens and bathrooms, halls and drawing rooms.
    Stone flooring is suitable for any ornamental style, since it can easily fit an ultramodern, antique or contemporary background.
    The flooring slabs are made of rocks such as marble, granite, travertine, limestone and even onyx.
    The thickness of the material in case of indoor flooring can vary between 1 and 2 centimeters, depending on the room and to whether there is any heating in the flooring or not.
    Once the flooring has been set up, it is advisable to use waterproofing products, which are easily imbibed in the material and protect it from attrition and potential random spots.

  • Bathroom floor

    Bathroom floor

    The finishing and furnishing of the bathroom is extremely important since it is strictly a functional room.
    The floor plays a very crucial role, so not only does it have to look extraordinary but it must also be vapor and gliding proof.
    The most appropriate types of rock for bathroom floors are travertine, granite, marble and onyx.
    More and more designers and architects have admitted lately that the usage of natural stone ensures the visual appeal aspect of the bathroom , both for flooring and for framing the bath and coating the walls.
    Once the natural stone flooring has been set up, it is advisable to waterproof it in order to protect the floors.
    The elegance and beauty of natural stone will complete the bathroom condition, proving it with a sense of value.

  • Kitchen floor

    Kitchen floor

    Practical and aesthetic aspects must entwine when one chooses the kitchen flooring. Natural stone complies with these two criteria.
    One can easily adjust the natural stone colors and patterns to the other elements of a kitchen.
    Marble, granite, travertine and limestone are the most appropriate types of natural stone for the kitchen flooring.
    The stone surface can be polished or grounded. The material thickness chosen for kitchen flooring can range between one and two centimeters.
    More and more architects have combined the dining room with the kitchen, creating thus a connection between the two spaces.
    That is what makes natural stone the perfect solution for such an approach, the advantages of such flooring being time endurance and effortless maintenance.
    The stone flooring can be easily cleaned with water and special stone cleaning and care products.
    One should administer a certain waterproofing product in order to protect the natural stone flooring from possible random spots once it has been set up.

  • Kitchen countertops

    Kitchen countertops

    Using a natural stone countertop changes the image of a kitchen entirely, providing a modern and genuine appearance.
    One should consider the spots exposure due to the products with a high level of acid and mechanical aggressions such as scratches.
    Granite is the ideal choice for countertops together with its entire range of color and structure. This stone is very resistant to mechanical aggression that can occur fortuitously in the kitchen and to high temperature, over 600 degrees Celsius.
    Polishing is the most recommended treatment of the kitchen countertop surface, which makes it spots free and easy to maintain.
    When choosing the kitchen countertop, one should take into consideration the natural stone weigh in proportion to the endurance of the material it is placed upon.
    In order to beget a striking appearance, one can use distance pieces on the edge of the countertop, for a bulky effect.
    It is advisable to waterproof the kitchen countertop after it has been assembled and interfaced with the furniture, and then again every two years or as many times as it is required to ensure endurance.

  • Vertical walls

    Vertical walls

    Choosing a natural stone finish for a house or building façade or for indoors always provides an unique exquisiteness of the background.
    Natural stone walls are a proper solution for indoors or outdoors furnishing, since it never grows old. The architects and designers highly recommend an out of the ordinary appearance, replacing the alternate finishing with natural stone ones.
    One can use natural stone platbands for both outdoor windows and doors.
    Natural stone goes perfectly with wood or wrought iron elements, such as those used in railings, balconies and gardens.
    As far as indoor walls are concerned, natural stone can be used for various adornments and styles, instating the space with a rustic, classic or modern aspect, according to one’s liking.
    We provide you a multiple variety of shapes, colors and finishing for such furnishing.
    Onyx is an ornamental material with a high impact due to its translucent property, which confers depth.
    Natural stone coating of outdoor building is a solution combining endurance and outstanding visual appeal.
    Stone can be used to cover large surfaces or to emphasize an area of maximum visual interest. This material is recommended due to its endurance, firmness and architectural appearance.
    The passage of time makes the natural stone appear unique, lending it a vintage appearance, without any further interference. Natural stone façade maintenance requires very little effort and even less time.
    Sinter, limestone, granite and slate are the natural stones endorsed for outdoor vertical coating. The first trait one should take into account for outdoor vertical coating is the fact that stone must be frost and thaw proof. The stone structure, chemical composite and color used for outdoor coating must be as uniform as possible, it mustn’t contain other elements that can easily disintegrate and it must originate from compact chunks.
    One should attend to sand and wind abrasive effect as far as cost areas are concerned. As for waterproofed stones, salt contamination is less harmful since it has a lower number of pores where salt might crystallize itself.
    Not only is natural stone coating appropriate for each style, be it traditional, classic or modern but it also comes in a wide range of colors and is extremely functional (it can be polished, honed, bushhammered and brushed).

  • Terraces


    Natural stone terraces are the ideal mixture of distinction and endurance, making the background look firm and vivid.
    The setup of a natural stone terrace requires an eye for detail; a terrace must render the style and atmosphere of the place it belongs to.
    Natural stone is the ideal stone for covering the surface of the terrace, because it is attrition, frost and thaw proof and it reacts well to frost cleftness.
    Granite, travertine, limestone and slate are the stone kinds highly recommended for coating terraces.
    The terrace coating must be skid-proof, which implies that the stone surface is assembled through grinding, flaming or stone granulating. The ply thickness is usually determined by the durability of the layer frame or the assembly type.
    As far as less used residential terraces are concerned, it is advisable to use over 2 cm thick ply, while for the highly used public terraces, one should use over 5 cm thick ply.

  • Outdoor furnishing

    Outdoor furnishing

    People have been using natural stone in outdoor furnishing for ages due to its strength and endurance.
    Natural stone is used for the facades, fences, terraces, line poles, swimming pools and stairs coating and for yards or garden alleys pavement.
    The atmospheric conditions and the high usage level strain outdoor furnishing the most. Granite, andesite, and travertine are the best choice for outdoor furnishing.
    If the stone is properly maintained, it preserves its appearance and its value increases, due to its vintage display, as years go by.
    Natural stone replenishes the possibility of furnishing special leisure and rest venues; waterfalls, artesian wells, flower pots.
    The beauty of a garden is not given only by plants but also by the variety of natural stone furnishing. The green areas or alleys can be enclosed using various elements.
    The setup quality plays just as important a role as the material choice for outdoor furnishing. As for the visual appeal, the choice is limitless, since the natural stone colors allow the widest furnishing patterns.


Choosing the stone according to the material

  • Marble


    From the geological perspective, Marble is a type of limestone, or bitter spar with properly developed calcite crystals, due to the metamorphic process it has undergone. The various marble colors come from its admixtures (red- from the iron salts; brown- from the braunite, gray from the graphite and so on) and their veins from the multitude of cracks filled with calcite later on.

    The general technical features:
    The average apparent density: 2,5 -2,7 t/m3
    Water absorption: 0,1 - 2,0 %
    Reduction consistency: 60 - 90 N/mm2
    MOHS hardness: 4-5
    Frost-thaw hardness: according to the origin

    Considering its features, marble is recommended especially for indoor works: floors and walls plies, platbands, steps, ornamental elements. Marble must be treated differently for outdoor works, because the atmospheric conditions can influence it, depolishing or breaking it, as a result of the frost-thaw cycle or acid rain. We recommend it for floors and small or medium traffic steps, considering its medium attrition quotient.

    Marble has one of the most appreciated materials for ages as a result of its color and usage variety. There is a wide diversity of marble and it comes from multiple places: Italy, Greece, Spain, Turkey, Portugal, Brazil. There is the Ruschita marble deposit in our country.

    The most important types of sold and used marble are: Ruschita, Carara, Roso Levanto, Nero Marquina, Pelino Bianco, Crema Marfil, Guatemala Green, Magic Brown and Lotus Rosalia.

  • Granite


    It’s an eruptive stone, consisting of silica, mica and feldspar, formed through a very slow cooling of the magma, cooling which led to the emergence of some crystals having the same size as the three mineral components, which renders special mechanical properties. Feldspar and silica have a certain endurance, which confers the granite its anti-abrasive properties.

    The general technical features:
    The apparent density: 2.5 – 2.8 t/m3
    Water absorption: 0,1 - 2,0 %
    Reduction consistency: 80 - 200 N/mm2
    MOHS hardness: 5-6
    Frost-thaw hardness : YES

    Due to its technical features granite can be used successfully for indoor works, but it is mainly recommended for outdoor works. It is appropriate for public spaces, institutions, commercial areas, highly used areas or for monuments. Since it stands out as a callous stone we recommend it for street and yard pavement and for sidewalks and alleys coating.

    From its use perspective, granite has come up with marble and tends to overcome it, due to its multiple color options and special physical-mechanical features regarding traffic or atmospheric conditions attrition.

    The merchandised granite quantities have hit the roof in the last twenty years as a result of new extraction and exploitation technologies.

    Nowadays, granite is being exploited in countries such as: Brasil, Italy, Spain, Norway, Belgium, China, USA, Canada or India. The largest granite extraction and exploitation quarry in Romania is Iacob Deal, Tulcea county. The deposits are mainly used for floors.

    Some of the most used types of granite are: Berry Back, Nero Africa, Nero Zimbabwe, Giallo Ornamentale, Bianco Romano, Kashmir Gold, Maple Red, Raj Red, Red Dragon, Sesame Black, Bahia Green, River Gold, Seawave Green and Batic Brown.

  • Sinter


    It is a honeycombed stone, made of calcspar, magnesian calcite and aragonite, whose color ranges from yellowish to brownish. The stone appears at the bottom of bicarbonate hot springs that come out of limestone or go over carbonate, chalk ions, and carbon dioxide- rich stones.

    The general technical features:
    The average density: 2,4 - 2,6 t/m3
    Water absorption: 1,0 - 2,4 %
    Reduction consistency: 33,5 N/mm2
    MOHS hardness: 4-5
    Frost-thaw hardness : YES

    Travertine can be used both for indoor works: such as floors and walls, including wet areas, fireplaces, countertops and outdoor works: alleys, terraces, facades, platbands, steps, columns or window boards but it is less recommended for overused boarded floors.

    Travertine has stood out all over the world as a material meant to highlight the architects’ and designers’ ideas, succeeding to preserve its image as a solid and outstanding material, regardless its area of use.

    The Roman used travertine to build temples, aqueducts, monuments, roman showers and amphitheatres – such as the Colloseum, the largest building in the world back then made mostly of travertine. The Sacre-Coeur Basilica in Paris is another important building for which a large quantity of travertine was used.

    Travertine originates in Italy, Turkey, Iran, Mexico, Peru, USA. There are also Geoagiu and Carpinis travertine quarries in Romania.

    Some of the most used types of travertine are: Classic Travertine, Cream Travertine, Noce Travertine, Romano Bianco Travertine and Romano Silver Travertine.

  • Limestone


    Limestone or lime carbonate, is a cream, grey or yellow sedimentary stone, mainly organogenic. Its main minerals are calcite and aragonite. Limestone is generally formed from biogen deposits. Bituminous limestone color varies from dark grey to black due to the presence of foreign minerals such as iron, which provides a reddish hue. It is not usually attrition proof, but after several frost-thaw cycles, this feature turns spectacularly into a positive trait since limestone is also self-cemented.

    The general technical features:
    The apparent density: 2,3 - 2,6 t/m3
    Water absorption: 2,0 - 5,0 %
    Reduction consistency: 0,17 g/cm2
    Reduction consistency in dried condition: 33,5 N/mm2
    MOHS hardness: 4
    Frost-thaw hardness: according to its origin

    There are two types of limestone:
    There are two types of limestone: multicolored limestone and lime sandstone. The former is approved only for indoor vertical and horizontal coatings, sculptures, steps and counter-steps. The latter is favored for indoor and outdoor coatings: mainly vertical coatings, aired facades, fireplaces, ornamental and statuary objects, massive architectural elements such as platbands, columns and balusters.

    Limestone has been the most used stone, starting from the pyramids and the fact that people may exploit it easily has led to the appearance of at least one limestone quarry in every corner of the world.

    In Romania, there is Podeni limestone, exploited in the village bearing the same name, from Cluj county.

    The most marketable limestone categories are: Vratza, White Timber, Grey Timber, Crème Fosil, Caliza Capri, Caliza Marbela.

  • Onyx


    Onyx is a colorful sort of chalcedony, which belongs to the quartz group, same as agate, except that the later bears more hues.

    The general technical features:
    The apparent density: 2.5 - 2,7 t/m3
    Water absorption: 0.5 - 1.5 %
    Reduction consistency in dried condition: 106.8 N/mm2
    MOHS hardness: 4
    Frost-thaw hardness: NO

    Onyx is a semiprecious stone, recommended only for indoor use such as vertical coatings, interior floors, ornamental elements or walls, which can glow, as a result of its translucent properties, emphasizing thus the onyx beauty and singularity.

    There has been a “rebirth” of onyx usage for adornments lately. Designers and draftsmen have rediscovered the interesting effects that one can set up using this special geological material. Its colors are emphasized through its prominent clouds and its translucence.

    The most important onyx quarries are in: Turkey, Iran, SUA, Mexico, Italy, Pakistan, Brazil, Argentina, China and Tanzania.

    The most marketable types of onyx are: Sultano Onyx, Bianco Onyx, Capuccino Onyx, Kilimanjaro Onyx, Nuvolato Red Onyx, Pink Onyx, Orientale Red Onyx, Pakistano Green Onyx, Viola Onyx, Tiger Onyx, Glaciale Onyx and Pavone Onyx.

  • Andesite


    Andesite is a fine-grained, magmatic rock shaped by the eruption of a volcano, its colors ranging from brown and violet to grey. Its main component is silicic acid, round about 60 %. It usually takes shape at a temperature varying between 950 and 1000 degrees Celcius, the lava it derives from containing placioclase, augite, amphiboles and biotite.

    The general technical features:
    The apparent density: 2,6-2,8 t/m3
    Water absorption: 1,0 - 2,0 %
    Reduction consistency: 0,1 g/cm2
    Reduction consistency: 120-190 N/mm2
    MOHS hardness: 5-6
    Frost-thaw hardness: Yes

    Considering its technical features, andesite is mainly used in outdoor works, such as pedestrian passageways and squares, alley and pavement coatings, garden furnishing and urban furniture.

    The andesite urban furniture is: benches, window boxes, bollards which limit the circulating medium, discards containers, culverts or even bicycle bolsters. It can also be used as !!! for tunnels or gratings, paving blocks or road baseboards.

    The largest andesite quarries are in China, SUA and Turkey. The most important andesite quarry in Romania is the Pietroasa quarry in Bihor county.

  • Slate


    Slate is a hard, argillaceous stone, that splinters easily, whose colors vary from grayish-black to green or even motley. Its name comes from the land of Ardes in Ireland, the place where the first slates were brought.

    The general technical features:
    The medium apparent density: 2,6 - 2,8 t/m3
    Water absorption: 0,1 - 0,6 %
    Reduction consistency: 140-210 N/mm2
    MOHS hardness: 6-7
    The degree of porosity: 0,5-25 N/mm2

    Slate is especially praised for outdoor works such as rustic ornamental areas, alleys, roofs, wall coatings, monuments, fountains, terraces, swimming pools, pool or snooker countertops. One can find fossils in slate, unlike other metamorphic stones.

    People used slate to make writing plates, in schools, in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Afterwards, at the beginning of the twentieth century, they started using slate to make electric panels and relays for large electromotors, due to its fireproof properties and the fact that it is an electric insulator.

    One can find slate quarries in Great Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany, Norway, SUA, Brazil. People have recently discovered slate in the Arctic.